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This fruit tree is from the palm family and is considered a tropical tree. The minimum temperature for growing date palms is 10 ° C and the trunk dies at -7 ° C. Dates are edible tropical fruits that are grown on date palm trees and have many health benefits. Dates have no main roots and secondary roots feed on the primary root.

 

The roots of the date palm are diffuse and penetrate deep into the soil. The date palm is very resistant to drought and soil salinity. The trunk of the palm tree is straight without branches. 

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Step-by-step Instruction for Planting Date Palms 

 

Date sprouts   

 

Root sprouts are actually offshoots that grow on the stem or root of a plant. In the past, farmers planted date pits, which was both time consuming and uneconomical. In this way, the growth of male or female plants could not be determined from the seed, and people needed a limited number of male trees. The offshoots that form on the stem or root are often selected for planting after the age of 3. To cut the offshoots from the tree, the soil around it is removed, then with a few strokes of a sharp-edged iron wedge, it is separated from the mother tree. In fact, it is possible to plant root sprouts in any season, but it is best to plant date palms in the spring or fall.  

 

Date Palm Tissue Culture 

 

In this case, a part of the young Sayer date plant tissue is grown in equipped laboratory conditions using stimulants. These seedlings need care for 3 years in a semi-closed and controlled environment and will start producing fruit about 5 years after planting. Growing some quality varieties of Iranian dates such as Shahani dates for export is very beneficial. This planting method has the following advantages:   

 

Mass propagation of many plant species  

 

Not being infected with viruses compared to root sprouts   

 

Possibility of planting in all seasons 

 

 

Starting date palms growing process  

 

Prepare the land for planting dates 

 

Someday before planting the root sprout, plow the ground and make holes in the ground for one or one and a half meters for each seedling. The distance between each of the holes should be between 8 and 10 meters

 

How to plant root sprouts 

 

Put the root sprouts in the hole and cover them with soil, so that the distance between the roots and the soil surface is not less than 15 cm and not more than 50 cm. After planting the cuttings, cover the area with palm leaves to prevent damage from intense sunlight or damage by animals.

 

Choose a suitable soil for date growth

 

The date palm is a low-maintenance plant that can grow in a variety of difficult conditions, but it is best to follow some tips to improve its condition. Poor soils for growing date palms include heavy clay soil, poor sandy soil, and saline soils. 

image_1643185445

 

Water supply for growing dates 

 

The grove is irrigated in various ways. In Khuzestan, Khorramshahr and Abadan provinces, the irrigation is done by atmospheric method, using the tides of the sea. In this method, the date palm is planted next to the river, and when Arvand River is in high waters, water enters the streams that are connected to the grove, and thus the groves are irrigated. When the river surface subsides, the water of the groves returns to the river.  

 

In Shadegan, a city in Khuzestan, a branch of a river flows into the streams that are about 20 km in length and irrigate the groves by a furrow irrigation system. 

 

In Borazjan, a city in Boushehr province, large earthen walls are constructed around the groves, and in times of flooding, when the river water is high in winter, the basins are filled with water and the date palms are irrigated 3 to 4 times in summer or the dry season.   

 

In some water-scarce areas, such as Balochistan, date palms are planted on the borders of large furrows and wheat and rice are planted inside the furrows. In this way, date palms are irrigated together with these crops.  

 

In Minab and Hajiabad cities in Bandar Abbas province, palm trees are irrigated 2 to 3 times during the summer. Drip irrigation has been added to the previous irrigation methods for several years now.

 

Palm fertilization

 

Animal Manure 

 

Every two years, those farmers who have livestock and animal manure pour 10 to 15 kilograms of animal manure at the foot of each palm tree and shovel it under the ground. The best time to fertilize is fall, and after harvesting dates, until March.  

 

Chemical Fertilizer

 

It was not common to use chemical fertilizers for palm trees until a few years ago. Now, some farmers, especially those who grow other crops such as beans, cereals, etc. under their trees use chemical fertilizers. The amount of phosphate fertilizer application is 100 to 150 kg/ha in winter with plowing. Urea is also applied as fertilizer in spring in the amount of 150 kg/ha.

 

The palm tree requirement for essential elements 

 

The most commonly used essential elements for growing date palms are phosphorus and potassium. To supply the nitrogen required by the plant, you can use urea fertilizer, onium sulfate and onium nitrate in drip irrigation.  Low consumed elements include iron, zinc, copper, manganese and molybdenum.    

 

Plowing groves  

 

In some areas citrus trees are cultivated between the rows of palm trees. In some areas, some crops such as herbs, tomatoes, okra, alfalfa, rice and beans are planted between palm trees, especially when planted in furrows. In this case, the grove land is plowed every year. If no crops are planted between the palm trees, the orchard will be plowed with a shovel or tractor in the summer to prevent water evaporation and to ventilate and kill weeds. 

 

Date Palm Pruning  

 

Date palms are usually pruned in 5 ways: 

 

Leaf pruning

 

Leaf base pruning

 

Thorn pruning 

 

Panicle base pruning

 

Offshoot cutting

 

Types of planted dates

 

Mazafati dates 

Shahani dates 

 

Sayer dates 

 

Piarom dates

Zahedi dates 

 

Deglet Noor dates

 

source : kimia gold company

 

Dates dates palm mazafati dates